Migration is a routine livelihoods strategy in rural India and not simply a response to shocks and extreme vulnerability. People migrate because there is not enough work in the source of migration but such movement should not be understood only in terms of distress or forced migration, because many people perceive migration as an opportunity. Migration for livelihoods is an inevitable phenomenon in because of the uneven distribution of natural resources in rural area and growing level of regional inequalities between states and between village and city.
The economic reform period has witnessed industrialization and green revolution concentrated in few states of India like Gujarat, Punjab, and Maharashtra. On the other hand, the states like Bihar and Odisha are continuously dealing with the curse of poverty. In addition to this the social structure, drought in agriculture, forest displacement, and aspiration for higher earnings are some of the key contributors of migration in India. The National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) data reveals that 41% of consumption for rural households comes from migration.